Skin and Pigmentation - How does it works ?



    1. Reasons for skin pigmentation

     The pigmentation processes

    1. The melanin pigments (melanosomes) are produced at the basal layer of the skin by the melanocytes.
    2. They are transferred by the dendrites from the melanocytes to the keratinocytes which are the constituents of the superficial layer of the skin (epidermis).
    3. During the epidermis turnover (30 days), the keratinocytes carry the melanosome and move until the top until they die and disappear under the form of dead skin.

    The factors for pigmentation disorder: 

    The melanocyte activity is induced by the following factors:

    • the α MSH hormone which activity is related by both UV and hormone levels (changes with periods, menopause, aging)
    • the inflammation and oxidative stress induced by pollution, acne and cosmetic procedures such as laser, chemical peels, surgery.
    • the excess of iron in the dermis caused by aging or injury. That is why aging skin needs more vitamin C to control the iron levels in the skin

       2. The techniques to remove dark spots

      The most efficient and fast way is to do a specific professional procedure, such as:

      Chemical peels involve applying a chemical solution to the face, neck and hands to exfoliate skin and remove dead skin cells, i t will also, stimulate the growth of new skin cells and reveal new skin.

      Laser therapies have much the same effect, but tend to be more precise, as the dermatologist has more control over the intensity of the treatment. They involve ‘zapping’ the affected areas with high-energy light. The mildest treatments work just on the skin’s epidermis (surface layer), while more intense treatments can penetrate the deepest layers of the skin.

      Hydroquinone. Dermatologists may also prescribe and/or use hydroquinone which is still regarded as the most effective topical agent for reducing hyperpigmentation. It can, however, only be used for limited periods of time because, it can irritate skin and actually cause post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, especially in people with darker skin.


      All these aesthetic procedures will reduce the accumulation of the melanine in the skin, but they will never treat the causes for hyperpigmentation. Which means that it is very important to have an action o